Healthcare-associated Infection (HAI)


HAI, also known as nosocomial infection, which is the infection acquired by the patient during the process of care in a hospital or other health care facility. HAI also include occupational infections among staff. Based on WHO data, it is estimated that there is hundreds of millions of patients affected by HAI each year. About 7 – 10 out of 100 hospitalized patients will acquire at least one HAI. This has led to increase of fatality rate and financial losses for health systems.

Types of HAI

Types of HAI Description
Central Line-associated Bloodstream Infection It is a serious infection that occurs when germs enter the bloodstream through the central line. Central line is a catheter that place in a large vein in the neck, chest or groin to inject medication or to collect blood for medical check-up.


Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infections It is an infection associated with a urinary catheter, which affects urinary system, including urethra, bladder, ureters, and kidney.


Surgical Site Infection It is an infection that occurs at the site where surgery took place.


Ventilator-associated Pneumonia It is a lung infection that develops in a person who is on a ventilator. It occurs when germs enter the tube of ventilator and get into the patient’s lung.



Microorganism causing HAI

Table below summarize the common microorganism that causes HAI

Microorganism Type Disease / Symptoms
Acinetobacter Gram-negative bacteria Cause infections in the blood, urinary tract, and lungs (pneumonia), or in wounds in other parts of the body


Burkholderia cepacia Gram-negative bacteria May cause serious respiratory infections, especially in patients with cystic fibrosis


Clostridium difficile Spore-forming bacteria


Diarrhea, fever, stomach tenderness, loss of appetite and nausea
Clostridium sordelli Spore-forming bacteria


May cause pneumonia, endocarditis, arthritis, peritonitis, and myonecrosis
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE)


Gram-negative bacteria May cause infection in almost any part of body, including bloodstream, urinary tract and pneumonia.
ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae Gram-negative bacteria May cause infection in almost any part of body, including bloodstream, urinary tract and pneumonia.


Hepatitis A, B, C


A: Enveloped virus

B, C: Non-enveloped virus


May cause liver diseases.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)


Enveloped virus Cause acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).


Gram-negative bacteria May cause pneumonia, bloodstream infections, wound or surgical site infections, and meningitis
Staphylococcus aureus, including antibiotic resistant strains (MRSA, VRSA)


Gram-positive bacteria May cause skin infections, sepsis, pneumonia, endocarditis and osteomyelitis


Mycobacteria May cause infections in wide variety of body parts, especially the lungs.
Norovirus Non-enveloped virus Cause gastroenteritis
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Gram-negative bacteria


Can cause infections at the site of surgery
Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) Gram-positive bacteria May cause urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections and wound infections

 Hisept has a range of products, including hand sanitizers, antiseptic solution, surface and instrument disinfectants that can prevent HAI.



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